€2 commemorative coins - San Marino 2005, World Year of Physics 2005.
Subject of commemoration: World Year of Physics 2005
Description of the design: The centre of the coin features a free interpretation of the allegorical painting of Galileo Galilei that is known as ‘la fisica antica’ or the study of the planets. The year of issue appears beneath a globe standing on a desk. To the left of the image is the mintmark ‘R’, and the engravers initials ‘LDS’ appear on the right. The words ‘SAN MARINO’ form a semicircle above the image, while the words ‘ANNO MONDIALE DELLA FISICA’ run along the lower edge of the inner part below. The outer ring bears the 12 stars of the European Union, separated by the outer edges of the image of a stylised atom inscribed in the background of the entire coin.
Reverse: left from the coin centre face value: 2, on the right inscription: EURO; in the background of the inscription a map of Europe; in the background of the map vertically six parallel lines ending on both sides with five-pointed stars (the reverse is common for all euro coins)
Issuing volume: 130,000 coins
Issue date: 14 October 2005
Face value: 2 euro
Diameter: 25.75 mm
Weight: 8.50 g
Alloy: Bimetal: CuNi, nordic gold
Quality: Proof, BU, UNC
Design Credit: Luciana De Simoni is credited as the engraver for the Sammarinese 2005 €2 Euro Commemorative coin.
Designer / Engraver Inscriptions: 'LDS' Stylized initials of the engraver:
€2 Edge Inscription: The Sammarinese €2 coin edge inscription is '2', followed by one star, repeated six times alternately upright and inverted.
Mint Location: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (IPZS) (State Printing Office and Mint), in Rome, Italy.
Mint Marks: Mintmark of the Rome mint: the letter 'R'. Located at the left side, inner circle, above the 9 o'clock star.
National Identification: Text: 'SAN MARINO'
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.
Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, which concluded that heliocentrism was false and contrary to scripture, placing works advocating the Copernican system on the index of banned books and forbidding Galileo from advocating heliocentrism. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Holy Office, then found "vehemently suspect of heresy", was forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences, in which he summarised the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.